Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes variable airflow obstruction.
How does inflammation occur?
Once we inhale the allergen (dust mites, pollen, animal dander, etc.) and it comes into contact with the bronchial mucosa, a process begins in which different cells and inflammatory mediators intervene. Genetic factors have also been shown to influence the inflammatory process.
If the bronchial mucosa becomes inflamed, the diameter of the airway decreases and symptoms occur.
What are the symptoms?
-Shortness of breath (dyspnea).
-Tightness in the chest.
Each person manifests these symptoms with varying frequency and intensity, depending on the causal allergen. For example, a person with allergic asthma caused by the pollen of “plátano de sombra” will have symptoms only at the time of pollination, approximately 2-3 weeks between the months of March and April; while a person who has allergic asthma from cats and lives with a cat will have symptoms continuously on a daily basis because of constant exposure.
Is there a treatment?
Yes, bronchial inhalers are indicated to treat inflammation, including inhaled corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids in combination with long-acting B2 agonists, short-acting B2 agonists and oral corticosteroids, among others. It all depends on the severity of each case.
Another treatment available is specific immunotherapy (“allergy shots”), once an allergological study has been carried out to determine the cause of the allergic asthma.
It is also important, if possible, to avoid the causative allergen.
What can you do if you have these symptoms?
We recommend that you see an allergy specialist for medical evaluation and testing as appropriate.